1 Ramses II. (kolossale Sitzstatue, Abu Simbel). Ramses II. war der dritte Herrscher der ägyptischen Dynastie und einer der hervorragenden Könige des →. Ramses II. lässt riesige Statuen von sich errichten und regiert länger als jeder andere Pharao. Doch Ramses II. schließt auch den ersten Friedensvertrag! Während des Goldenen Zeitalters von Ägypten ließ Ramses II. mehr Gebäude errichten und zeugte mehr Kinder als jeder andere Pharao.
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Ramses II., auch Ramses der Große genannt, war der dritte altägyptische König aus der Dynastie des Neuen Reichs. Er regierte rund 66 Jahre von 12v. Chr. und ist damit eines der am längsten amtierenden Staatsoberhäupter der Welt. Er. Ramses II., auch Ramses der Große genannt (* um v. Chr.; † Juni v. Chr.), war der dritte altägyptische König (Pharao) aus der Dynastie des. Ramses II. lässt riesige Statuen von sich errichten und regiert länger als jeder andere Pharao. Doch Ramses II. schließt auch den ersten Friedensvertrag! Während des Goldenen Zeitalters von Ägypten ließ Ramses II. mehr Gebäude errichten und zeugte mehr Kinder als jeder andere Pharao. 1 Ramses II. (kolossale Sitzstatue, Abu Simbel). Ramses II. war der dritte Herrscher der ägyptischen Dynastie und einer der hervorragenden Könige des →. Zu den bedeutendsten Pharaonen des Alten Ägypten gehörte Ramses II. (Neues Reich, Dynastie, Jahrhundert v. Chr.). In der Geschichtsschreibung. Eine gigantische Metropole baute Pharao Ramses II. am Nil, ihre Überreste werden nun ausgegraben. Der Bibel zufolge lebten die Hebräer.
Im Jahr v. Chr. zog Pharao Ramses II. gegen die Hethiter. Bei Kadesch in Syrien wäre sein Heer beinahe vernichtet worden. Von da an. Deutschlands führende Nachrichtenseite. Alles Wichtige aus Politik, Wirtschaft, Sport, Kultur, Wissenschaft, Technik und mehr. Pharao Ramses II. regierte 67 Jahre. Es gelang ihm, einen Frieden mit den Hethitern zu erreichen, der immerhin 50 Jahre dauerte. Eine seiner Hauptfrauen.
His reign saw a great number of architectural achievements, and the building and reconstructing of many temples, monuments and structures.
Those included the gigantic temples of Abu Simbel, a rock monument to himself and his queen Nefertari and the Ramesseum, his mortuary temple.
Both temples featured giant statues of Ramses himself. During the 8th and 9th years of his reign, Ramses led more military campaigns against the Hittites, successfully capturing Dapur and Tunip.
Skirmishes with the Hittites continued over these two cities until BC, when an official peace treaty was established between the Egyptian pharaoh and Hattusili III, the then king of the Hittites.
Look dead cool with our Tutankhamun cloth face covering. Shop Now. It is not known the exact number of children Ramses had in his lifetime, however the rough estimate is around 96 sons and 60 daughters.
Rameses had more than wives and concubines, however his favourite queen was most likely Nefertari. Queen Nefertari who went on to rule with her husband, and was referred to as the Royal Wife of the Pharaoh.
She is thought to have died relatively early in his reign. Her tomb QV66 is the most beautiful in the Valley of the Queens, containing wall paintings regarded as some of the greatest works of ancient Egyptian art.
Ramses reigned from to BC, a total of 66 years and two months. Ramses was succeeded by his 13th son, Merneptah, who was nearly 60 years when he ascended to the throne.
Funde und Bauteile. Kampagne, Archäologische Veröffentlichungen Faras V. The Pharaonic Inscriptions from Faras.
Warsaw, Vienne, Fallecidos en el siglo XIII a. Antiguos egipcios del siglo XIII a. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial.
Wikimedia Commons. Nefertari , Isis-Nefert , Maathornefrura. Este aviso fue puesto el 14 de septiembre de He took towns in Retenu ,  and Tunip in Naharin ,  later recorded on the walls of the Ramesseum.
The deposed Hittite king, Mursili III , fled to Egypt, the land of his country's enemy, after the failure of his plots to oust his uncle from the throne.
This demand precipitated a crisis in relations between Egypt and Hatti when Ramesses denied any knowledge of Mursili's whereabouts in his country, and the two empires came dangerously close to war.
The ensuing document is the earliest known peace treaty in world history. The peace treaty was recorded in two versions, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs , the other in Akkadian , using cuneiform script ; both versions survive.
Such dual-language recording is common to many subsequent treaties. This treaty differs from others, in that the two language versions are worded differently.
While the majority of the text is identical, the Hittite version says the Egyptians came suing for peace and the Egyptian version says the reverse.
The frontiers are not laid down in this treaty, but may be inferred from other documents. The harbour town of Sumur , north of Byblos , is mentioned as the northernmost town belonging to Egypt, suggesting it contained an Egyptian garrison.
No further Egyptian campaigns in Canaan are mentioned after the conclusion of the peace treaty. The Hittite king encouraged the Babylonian to oppose another enemy, which must have been the king of Assyria , whose allies had killed the messenger of the Egyptian king.
Ramesses II also campaigned south of the first cataract of the Nile into Nubia. When Ramesses was about 22, two of his own sons, including Amun-her-khepeshef , accompanied him in at least one of those campaigns.
By the time of Ramesses, Nubia had been a colony for years, but its conquest was recalled in decoration from the temples Ramesses II built at Beit el-Wali  which was the subject of epigraphic work by the Oriental Institute during the Nubian salvage campaign of the s ,  Gerf Hussein and Kalabsha in northern Nubia.
On the south wall of the Beit el-Wali temple, Ramesses II is depicted charging into battle against the Nubians in a war chariot, while his two young sons, Amun-her-khepsef and Khaemwaset, are shown behind him, also in war chariots.
A wall in one of Ramesses's temples says he had to fight one battle with the Nubians without help from his soldiers. There are no detailed accounts of Ramesses II's undertaking large military actions against the Libyans , only generalised records of his conquering and crushing them, which may or may not refer to specific events that were otherwise unrecorded.
It may be that some of the records, such as the Aswan Stele of his year 2, are harking back to Ramesses's presence on his father's Libyan campaigns.
Perhaps it was Seti I who achieved this supposed control over the region, and who planned to establish the defensive system, in a manner similar to how he rebuilt those to the east, the Ways of Horus across Northern Sinai.
By tradition, in the 30th year of his reign Ramesses celebrated a jubilee called the Sed festival. These were held to honour and rejuvenate the pharaoh's strength.
He had brought peace, maintained Egyptian borders, and built great and numerous monuments across the empire. His country was more prosperous and powerful than it had been in nearly a century.
Sed festivals traditionally were held again every three years after the 30th year; Ramesses II, who sometimes held them after two years, eventually celebrated an unprecedented 13 or Ramesses built extensively throughout Egypt and Nubia, and his cartouches are prominently displayed even in buildings that he did not construct.
He covered the land from the Delta to Nubia with buildings in a way no monarch before him had. It previously had served as a summer palace during Seti I's reign.
His memorial temple, known today as the Ramesseum, was just the beginning of the pharaoh's obsession with building.
When he built, he built on a scale unlike almost anything before. The population was put to work changing the face of Egypt. In Thebes, the ancient temples were transformed, so that each one of them reflected honour to Ramesses as a symbol of his putative divine nature and power.
Ramesses decided to eternalize himself in stone, and so he ordered changes to the methods used by his masons. The elegant but shallow reliefs of previous pharaohs were easily transformed, and so their images and words could easily be obliterated by their successors.
Ramesses insisted that his carvings be deeply engraved into the stone, which made them not only less susceptible to later alteration, but also made them more prominent in the Egyptian sun, reflecting his relationship with the sun deity, Ra.
Ramesses constructed many large monuments, including the archaeological complex of Abu Simbel, and the mortuary temple known as the Ramesseum.
He built on a monumental scale to ensure that his legacy would survive the ravages of time. Ramesses used art as a means of propaganda for his victories over foreigners, which are depicted on numerous temple reliefs.
Ramesses II erected more colossal statues of himself than any other pharaoh, and also usurped many existing statues by inscribing his own cartouche on them.
Ramesses II moved the capital of his kingdom from Thebes in the Nile valley to a new site in the eastern Delta. His motives are uncertain, although he possibly wished to be closer to his territories in Canaan and Syria.
The new city of Pi-Ramesses or to give the full name, Pi -Ramesses Aa-nakhtu , meaning "Domain of Ramesses, Great in Victory"  was dominated by huge temples and his vast residential palace, complete with its own zoo.
The rest is buried in the fields. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus marveled at the gigantic temple, now no more than a few ruins.
Oriented northwest and southeast, the temple was preceded by two courts. An enormous pylon stood before the first court, with the royal palace at the left and the gigantic statue of the king looming up at the back.
Scenes of the great pharaoh and his army triumphing over the Hittite forces fleeing before Kadesh are represented on the pylon.
Remains of the second court include part of the internal facade of the pylon and a portion of the Osiride portico on the right.
Scenes of war and the alleged rout of the Hittites at Kadesh are repeated on the walls. In the upper registers , feast and honor of the phallic deity Min , god of fertility.
On the opposite side of the court the few Osiride pillars and columns still remaining may furnish an idea of the original grandeur.
They are decorated with the usual scenes of the king before various deities. Ramesses's children appear in the procession on the few walls left.
The sanctuary was composed of three consecutive rooms, with eight columns and the tetrastyle cell. Part of the first room, with the ceiling decorated with astral scenes, and few remains of the second room are all that is left.
Vast storerooms built of mud bricks stretched out around the temple. A temple of Seti I , of which nothing remains beside the foundations, once stood to the right of the hypostyle hall.
It is an ego cast in stone; the man who built it intended not only to become Egypt's greatest pharaoh, but also one of its deities.
An enormous pile of sand almost completely covered the facade and its colossal statues, blocking the entrance for four more years.
As well as the temples of Abu Simbel, Ramesses left other monuments to himself in Nubia. His early campaigns are illustrated on the walls of the Temple of Beit el-Wali now relocated to New Kalabsha.
The colossal statue of Ramesses II dates back 3, years, and was originally discovered in six pieces in a temple near Memphis. Weighing some tonne long-ton; short-ton , it was transported, reconstructed, and erected in Ramesses Square in Cairo in In August , contractors relocated it to save it from exhaust fumes that were causing it to deteriorate.
Originally Ramesses II was buried in the tomb KV7  in the Valley of the Kings , but because of looting, priests later transferred the body to a holding area, re-wrapped it, and placed it inside the tomb of queen Ahmose Inhapy.
All of this is recorded in hieroglyphics on the linen covering the body of the coffin of Ramesses II. The pharaoh's mummy reveals an aquiline nose and strong jaw.
It stands at about 1. White at the time of death, and possibly auburn during life, they have been dyed a light red by the spices henna used in embalming The hairs are white, like those of the head and eyebrows In , Maurice Bucaille , a French doctor, examined the mummy at the Cairo Museum and found it in poor condition.
The mummy was forensically tested by Professor Pierre-Fernand Ceccaldi, the chief forensic scientist at the Criminal Identification Laboratory of Paris.
Professor Ceccaldi determined that: "Hair, astonishingly preserved, showed some complementary data—especially about pigmentation: Ramses II was a ginger haired ' cymnotriche leucoderma '.
During the examination, scientific analysis revealed battle wounds, old fractures, arthritis , and poor circulation. Researchers observed "an abscess by his teeth which was serious enough to have caused death by infection, although this cannot be determined with certainty".
After being irradiated in an attempt to eliminate fungi and insects, the mummy was returned from Paris to Egypt in May The tomb of the most important consort of Ramesses was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli in A flight of steps cut out of the rock gives access to the antechamber, which is decorated with paintings based on chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead.
This astronomical ceiling represents the heavens and is painted in dark blue, with a myriad of golden five-pointed stars. The east wall of the antechamber is interrupted by a large opening flanked by representation of Osiris at left and Anubis at right; this in turn leads to the side chamber, decorated with offering scenes, preceded by a vestibule in which the paintings portray Nefertari presented to the deities, who welcome her.
Originally, the queen's red granite sarcophagus lay in the middle of this chamber. According to religious doctrines of the time, it was in this chamber, which the ancient Egyptians called the golden hall, that the regeneration of the deceased took place.
This decorative pictogram of the walls in the burial chamber drew inspirations from chapters and of the Book of the Dead: in the left half of the chamber, there are passages from chapter concerning the gates and doors of the kingdom of Osiris, their guardians, and the magic formulas that had to be uttered by the deceased in order to go past the doors.
The bust depicted Ramses II wearing a wig with the symbol "Ka" on his head. Its measurements were 55 cm wide, 45 cm thick and cm long.
It is the first-ever Ka statue made of granite to be discovered. The only Ka statue that was previously found is made of wood and it belongs to one of the kings of the 13th dynasty of ancient Egypt which is displayed at the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir Square," said archaeologist Mostafa Waziri.
By the time of his death, aged about 90 years, Ramesses was suffering from severe dental problems and was plagued by arthritis and hardening of the arteries.
He had outlived many of his wives and children and left great memorials all over Egypt. Nine more pharaohs took the name Ramesses in his honour.
Ramesses is the basis for Percy Bysshe Shelley 's poem " Ozymandias ". Diodorus Siculus gives an inscription on the base of one of his sculptures as: " King of Kings am I, Osymandias.
If anyone would know how great I am and where I lie, let him surpass one of my works. In entertainment and media, Ramesses II is one of the more popular candidates for the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
Although not a major character, Ramesses appears in Joan Grant 's So Moses Was Born , a first person account from Nebunefer, the brother of Ramoses, which paints a picture of the life of Ramoses from the death of Seti, replete with the power play, intrigue, and assassination plots of the historical record, and depicting the relationships with Bintanath , Tuya , Nefertari , and Moses.
DeMille 's classic The Ten Commandments Here Ramesses is portrayed as a vengeful tyrant as well as the main antagonist of the film, ever scornful of his father's preference for Moses over "the son of [his] body".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. For the armored vehicle, see Ramses II tank.
Royal titulary. Main article: Battle of Kadesh. Main article: Siege of Dapur. Main article: Egyptian—Hittite peace treaty.
Main article: Sed festival. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.